A Review of Fog Computing Concept, Architecture, Application, Parameters and Challenges

Naveed Ghani - Universiti of Kuala Lumpur, 50250, Malaysia and SZABIST University, Karachi, Karachi City, 75600, Pakistan
Aznida Abu Bakar Sajak - Universiti of Kuala Lumpur, 50250, Malaysia
Rehan Qureshi - University of Southern Queensland, 4350, Australia
Megat Farez Azril Zuhairi - Universiti of Kuala Lumpur, 50250, Malaysia
Zaid Mujaiyid Putra Ahmad Baidowi - Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia

Citation Format:

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.62527/joiv.8.2.2187


The Internet of Things (IoT) has become an integral part of our daily lives, growing exponentially from a facility to a necessity. IoT has been utilized extensively through cloud computing and has proven an excellent technology for deploying in various fields. The data generated by the IoT devices gets transmitted to the cloud for processing and storage. However, with this approach, there are specific issues like latency, energy, computation resources availability, bandwidth, heterogeneity, storage, and network failure. To overcome these obstacles, fog computing is utilized as a middle tier. Fog computing gathers and processes the generated data closer to the user end before transmitting it to the cloud. This paper aims to conduct a structured review of the current state of fog computing and its architectures deployed across multiple industries. This paper also focuses on the implementation and critical parameters for introducing fog computing in IoT-cloud architecture. A detailed comparative analysis has been carried out for 5 different architectures considering various crucial parameters to identify how the quality of service and quality of experience for end users can be optimized. Finally, this paper looks at the multiple challenges that fog computing faces in a structured six-level approach. These challenges will also lead the way for future research in resource management, green computing, and security.


Fog computing; Cloud computing; Fog architecture; Edge computing; Internet of things (IoT); Architectural analysis; Green Computing

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