Optimizing the Performance of AI Model for Non-Invasive Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Hyperparameter Tuning and Random Oversampling Approach

Karisma Putra - Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Bantul 55183, Indonesia
Mahendro Prasetyo Kusumo - Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Bantul 55183, Indonesia
Prayitno Prayitno - Politeknik Negeri Semarang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
Darma Wicaksana - Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Bantul 55183, Indonesia
Ahmad Arrayyan - Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Bantul 55183, Indonesia
Sakca Pratama - Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Bantul 55183, Indonesia
Mujib Al-Kamel - Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Bantul 55183, Indonesia
Hsing-Chung Chen - China Medical University, Taichung City 41354, Taiwan

Citation Format:

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.62527/joiv.8.2.2047


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) as a non-communicable disease (NCD) continues to increase every year. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is essential for effective DM management. However, existing disposable glucose monitoring methods still rely on invasive techniques, cause pain, and lack continuous monitoring capabilities. On the other hand, non-invasive techniques are not feasible for CGM due to the biometric data's complexity and the classification system's inadequate performance. This study aims to develop a non-invasive technology to improve the performance of a non-invasive blood glucose classification system using Artificial Intelligence (AI), specifically Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and an oversampling technique. The oversampling technique could improve data quantity by balancing the amount of data for each class. This study recruited twenty-three participants in the age range of 20 to 22 years comprising seven females and fifteen males. During data recording sessions, blood glucose levels were simultaneously assessed using a gold-standard glucometer and a non-invasive CGM prototype. The proposed CNN model successfully improved the classification accuracy of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring significantly. With the implementation of oversampling for augmenting the data, the accuracy of the proposed model increased to more than 88%. This study concludes that non-invasive approaches combined with AI technology have the potential to provide a convenient and pain-free alternative to traditional monitoring methods, significantly improving diabetes management and enhancing the overall quality of life for those affected by this condition. These findings could revolutionize the field of diabetes management, offering a more comfortable and accurate monitoring solution that could potentially transform the lives of millions of diabetes patients.


Diabetes Mellitus; continuous glucose monitoring; non-invasive; AI; CNN.

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